"The power is real and it is what animates the way forward"

endnotes
(note number from pamphlet is followed by Chapter number and original note number from Damming the Flood)

1 - Introduction : note 1
Inter American Development Bank, Haiti: Bank's Transition Strategy, 2005-2006, 1.

2 - Chapter 1 : note 3
FAFO, "A Profile of Poverty in Haiti" (2004).
(Pål Sletten and Willy Egset, Poverty in Haiti - FAFO, 2004, 9.)

3 - Chapter 1 : note 28
Anne Street, Haiti 2004: A Nation in Crisis (2004); IMF, Haiti: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (November 2006), 11; Sletten and Egset, Poverty in Haiti (2004)

4 - Chapter 1 : note 29
"WFP Director Appeals for More Aid to Haiti on his Visit to the Country," World Food Program, 15 April 2004.

5 - Chapter 4 : note 44
Andréa Schmidt and Anthony Fenton, "Andy Apaid and Us," ZNet, 19 October 2005; cf. Campaign for Labour Rights, "Garment Production in Haitian Export Processing Zones," 8 August 1998.

6 - Chapter 6 : note 8
I [Peter Hallward] draw here mainly on the more detailed summaries of these achievements provided by the Haiti Action Committee pamphlets, We Will Not Forget: The Achievements of Lavalas in Haiti (2005) and Hidden from the Headlines (2003).

7 - Chapter 6 : note 10
Haiti Action Committee, We Will Not Forget, 5.

8 - Chapter 2 : note 70
Julia Preston, "Age of Aristide: Haiti Calmed After a Year," New York Times 20 September 1995. "Probably the biggest reason for a lack of violence," notes Time Magazine that summer, "was Aristide himself. The concerns about his leftist opinions and volatile personality, which have jangled nerves in Washington, have so far proved groundless" (Kevin Fedark, "Thumbs Up, Halfways," Time Magazine 10 July 1995).

9 - Chapter 6 : note 12
Lafanmi Selavi was established in 1988. It provided a home for hundreds of orphans and street kids, and was a regular target of anti-Lavalas violence and infiltration. After Aristide's return in 1994, the creation of Radio Timoun was followed by the establishment of Tele Timoun, along with a new Montessori school. In 1999 the shelter for boys was closed when, in the wake of repeated threats and attacks, a sit-in staged by a group of disgruntled and unemployed Lafanmi alumni turned violent; the residential component of Lafanmi was then turned into a large health clinic. The entire complex was torched after the February 2004 coup, and as of early 2007 the buildings remained an empty shell.

10 - Chapter 1 : note 14
See in particular Lisa McGowan, Democracy Undermined, Economic Justice Denied: Structural Adjustment and the Aid Juggernaut in Haiti (1997) Cf. Wilentz, The Rainy Season, 269-84; Eric Verhoogan, "The US-Haiti Connection: Rich COmpanies, Poor Workers," Multinational Monitor 17: 4 (April 1996); Sasha Kramer, "The Friendly Face of US Imperialism: USAID and Haiti" (October 2005); Michel Chossudovsky, The Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order (2003); Barbara Briggs and Charles Kernaghan, "The US Economic Agenda" (January 1994); National Labor Committee, Haiti After the Coup: Sweatshop or Real Development (April 1993); Marie Kennedy and Chris Tilly, "Up Against the 'Death Plan'" (March 1996); Anthony Fenton, "Gildan Activewear: Taking Sweatshops to New Depths in Haiti," ZNet 24th July 2004. The IMF has spent most of the last couple of decades obliging Haitian governments to cut their public spending; the most recent (November 2006) IMF report on poverty in Haiti recognizes, by contrast, that "massive investments must be made in order to increase the provision of basic services nationwide" (IMF, Haiti: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy, 14).

11 - Chapter 2 : note 78
Aristide, Eyes of the Heart, 16-17.

12 - Chapter 2 : note 79
Catherine Orenstein, "An Interview with Jean-Bertrande Aristide," Tikkun (May 1998); Atistide, Eyes of the Heart, 49.

13 - Chapter 1 : note 25
Interview with Jonas Petit, Miami 8 April 2006; Kennedy and Tilly, Haiti in 2001" (November 2001).

14 - Chapter 1 : note 26
Cited in Catherine Orenstein, "Aristide, Again" (January 2001).

15 - Chapter 1 : note 35
Robert Fatton, Haiti's Predatory Republic, 39 (2002).

16 - Chapter 1 : note 37
Paul Farmer, The Uses of Haiti, 56.

17 - Chapter 1 : note 38
William Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy, 260.

18 - Chapter 1 : note 41
Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World, 290-292.

19 - Chapter 1 : note 42
Robert Heinl and Nancy Heinl, Written in Blood, 74, 110.

20 - Chapter 1 : note 43
C.L.R. James, Black Jacobins, 288.

21 - Chapter 1 : note 54
Cf. Bellegarde-Smith, Breached Citadel, 107.

22 - Chapter 1 : note 56
Alex Dupuy, Prophet and Power, 25-28.

23 - Chapter 1 : note 112
CF. Wilentz, The Rainy Season, 50-3.

24 - This figure is given on page 155 without an endnote.

25 - Chapter 1 : note 69
Leonardo and Clodovis Boff, Introducing Liberation Theology, 6.

26 - Chapter 1 : note 70
Noam Chomsky, in Kean, Rezistans, 4.

27 - These final details are from the Chronology.

28 - Chapter 2 : note 101
Haiti Support Group Briefing 12 (April 1995), cited in Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy, 311.

29 - Chapter 8 : note 5
Thomas Wiens and Carlos Sobrado, Haiti: The Challenges of Poverty Reduction (World Bank, 1998) cited in nne Street, Haiti, 18.

30 - Chapter 8 : note 6
Engler and Fenton, Canada in Haiti, 48; Interview with Anne Hastings, Port-au-Prince, 24 April 2006.

31 - Chapter 8 : note 8
"A Friend to Haitians," Washington Post, 17 January 2004.

32 - Chapter 8 : note 9
Arthur, Haiti in Focus, 48; cf. 33-4.

33 - Chapter 8 : note 11
Laurie Richardson, "Feeding Dependency, Starving Democracy: USAID Policies in Haiti," Grassroots International, 6 March 1997.

34 - Chapter 8 : note 14
Ibidem.

35 - Chapter 1 : note 80
Aristide, "Let the Flood Descend," Radio Haiti-Inter, November 1988, in Aristide, Parish of the Poor, 104. Aristide always insisted on the concrete primacy of solidarity - as he said in an interview in March 2001, "We owe each other solidarity. A blow to one is a blow to all. No-one should have to feel alone in the face of criminals. Everyone should feel that we are one, so that when a criminal is going to attack one person [. . .], he knows when he attacks one person, he is attacking all those who are around this personn. If all Haitians in this country let this message give them strength, insecurity will start to decrease" (Michele Montas, "Interview of President Jean-Bertrande Aristide," Radio Haiti-Inter, 3 Marc 2001, http://haitisupport.gn.ap-c.org/Montas.html).

36 - Chapter 6 : note 22
Interview with Ramilus Bolivar, Port-au-Prince, 15 January 2007

37 - Introduction : note 22
Lindsay and Eli, "What Future for Haiti?" (2006); cf. Christopher Marquis, "Latin Allies of the US: Docile and Reliable No Longer," New York Times, 9 January 2004.

38 - Chapter 3 : note 6
Charles Arthur, Haiti in Focus, 69. The FL election program is a substantial 180-page book, entitled Investir dans l'humain (1999).

39 - Chapter 1 : note 76
Aristide, Dignity, 88; Aristide, Autobiography, 121. "The divine does not exist outside of the human [but . . .] to the degree that our values are divine, the human springs from the divine" (Aristide, Théologie et politique, 15-16).

40 - Chapter 1 : note 78
Aristide, Autobiography, 120-1.

41 - Chapter 1 : note 79
Ibid., 53.